Private information, such as your current location, should be protected by you to keep yourself secure. With phone number tracking, almost anyone can find your location. Mobile tracking is the most commonly used method and it is also one that can fail if you are careful.
Mobile tracking can be done through softwares, but they are not easy to use. Your phone manufacturers might have their own software which they use to track stolen phones. Your phone should have an IMEI number, which is used to track stolen phones. It is not easy to track phones in general, unless you are a special agent who has ties to the NSA or CIA.
Keep your phone secure with you!
Most phone tracking softwares act like spywares and can be installed on your mobile phone. The person who wants to track you has to install these softwares secretly. They cannot do this if you keep your phone with you all the time.
Virus like tracking softwares also exist, which may take Meta data from your phone whenever you make a call. Your location and the location of the person whom you called are present in this Meta data. If you think you are in danger of being tracked, just restore your phone to factory settings or get the entire OS reinstalled.
You can also prevent yourself from being tracked by not clicking any suspicious links. Even if you are using mobile internet, websites that contain spywares will track your location. This can be dangerous for you, as they can pass your location to third parties. So avoid visiting websites that may contain spyware. You should check reviews before visiting any new website.
You cannot stop the NSA or the CIA from tracking you, but you can keep yourself out of danger if you feel threatened or exposed. Instead of talking over phone, you should invite the person to meet you face to face, or simply do not talk about your secrets over phone. Learn how to use code words and avoid using names if you are using a public phone to make a phone call.